Allah says in the Quran:
If you are all ill on a journey or any one of you has answered the call of nature or had intercourse and you do not find water, you must do dry ablution with clean earth by wiping your faces and hands, surely Allah is purifying and pardoning.” (4:43)
Tayamum is a blessing of Allah and manifestation of Islaams practicality and flexibility. When a person is ill or does not find water then to take the ritual bath (ghusl) or ablution may not be possible thus tayamum is an alternative because one is not allowed to delay or miss prayers or touch Quran in state of minor or major ritual impurity. Tayamum can be done on anything which is clean provided it is from the earth, like sand, stone, dust and plaster.
METHOD TO MAKE TAYAMUM (DRY ABLUTION)
1. Make intention that I am making tayamum for the purpose of obtaining purity.
2. Strike both hands on the stone, sand whatever is available from the same kind of earth. Sake off the excess and wipe both hands over the face as you are washing the face making sure that no part of the face is left out.
3. Now strike both hands again on the earth after shaking away the excess dust. Wipe both arms including the elbows in the following manner:
a) After placing four fingers of the left hand under the finger tips of the right hand rub towards the elbow of the right hand.
b) In similar manner beginning from the elbow rub over the inner parts of the right hand up to the fingers, ending up by passing the inner part of the left thumb over the outer portion of the right thumb. After completing the right hand do exactly the same with the left hand.
c) This is followed by making khilal (combing) of the fingers. If one is wearing a ring it should be either removed or rotated.
CONDITIONS FOR VALIDITY OF TAYAMUM
1. Intention for obtaining purity for performance of salah, reciting Quran and whichever act of worship one intends to practice.
2. To be one mile away from water even in the city.
3. To be sick or due to cold one fears the use of water will be harmful.
4. Due to fear of an enemy in battle etc.
5. Due to thirst meaning that if you use the water for wuzu then no water will be left to drink.
6. Non availability of any instrument to draw water e.g. rope, bucket, no tap.
7. On fearing if one performs wuzu the funeral prayer will be missed or one fears missing the Eid salah altogether.
8. Tayamum should be made on such a substance that is of earth e.g. sand, stone, soil, sea sand and that which does not burn, melt or form into ash.
9. Tayamum cannot be made on wood, silver metal or gold.
10. One should wipe the whole area of face and hands up to and including elbows, so that not even small part is left untouched.
11. One should strike the palms of the hand thrice on the sand.
12. Tayamum replaces wuzu when one is free from major impurities such as janabat, menstrual and postnatal bleeding.
13. It is necessary to wait for promised water even if salah is missed.
14. It is necessary to search for water within a radius of four hundred steps.
SOME USEFUL ISSUES REGARDING TAYAMUM
1. If half or more of the body is wounded then one can make tayamum.
2. If more than half the body is well then wash the part which is well and perform masah (rub a wet hand) over the wounded part. 3. Whatever breaks wuzu will also tayamum.
OBLIGATORY (FARZ) ACTS OF TAYAMUM
1. To wipe the full face.
2. To wipe over both hands including the elbows.
PROPHETIC ACTS (SUNNAHS) IN TAYAMUM
1. To begin with Bismillah (in the name of Allah).
2. To wipe the face before wiping arms.
3. To do these actions without long intervals in between.
4. To move the two hands forwards and backwards after placing them on sand.
5. To shake the excess dust off hands.
6. To keep the fingers a part when placing hands on the sand.
7. To wipe the right hand first and then the left hand.
8. To comb the beard with fingers after wiping the face.