Hadith of Dabiq and Amaq is an apocalyptic prophesy that warns of a war between Muslims and and non-Muslims, more specifically Romans, in Dabiq (دابق) -a town in northern Syria or Amaq (أعماق) - currently known as Amik valley located in Hatay province of southern Turkey, towards the end of time. 
Prophecy[edit | edit source]
In Sahih Muslim, The Book of tribulations and portents of the last Hour, there is a chapter on the conquest of Constantinople, the Emergence of Dajjal and the descent of Isa ibn Maryam in which the there is a Hadith reported by Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه) quoting Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:
"The Last Hour would not come until the Romans would land at al-A'maq or in Dabiq. An army consisting of the best (soldiers) of the people of the earth at that time will come from Medina (to counteract them). When they will arrange themselves in ranks, the Romans would say: Do not stand between us and those (Muslims) who took prisoners from amongst us. Let us fight with them; and the Muslims would say: Nay, by Allah, we would never get aside from you and from our brethren that you may fight them. They will then fight and a third (part) of the army would run away, whom Allah will never forgive. A third (part of the army) which would be constituted of excellent martyrs in Allah's eye, would be killed and the third who would never be put to trial would win and they would be conquerors of Constantinople. And as they would be busy in distributing the spoils of war (amongst themselves) after hanging their swords by the olive trees, the Satan would cry: The Dajjal has taken your place among your family. They would then come out, but it would be of no avail. And when they would come to Syria, he would come out while they would be still preparing themselves for battle drawing up the ranks. Certainly, the time of prayer shall come and then Isa ibn Maryam (عليه السلام) would descend and would lead them. When the enemy of Allah would see him, it would (disappear) just as the salt dissolves itself in water and if he (Isa) were not to confront them at all, even then it would dissolve completely, but Allah would kill them by his hand and he would show them their blood on his lance (the lance of Isa)."
(Sahih Muslim 2897) 
In another Hadith, Auf bin Mali (رضي الله عنه) narrated:
"I went to the Prophet (ﷺ) during the Ghazwa of Tabuk while he was sitting in a leather tent. He said, 'Count six signs that indicate the approach of the Hour: my death, the conquest of Jerusalem, a plague that will afflict you (and kill you in great numbers) as the plague that afflicts sheep, the increase of wealth to such an extent that even if one is given one hundred Dinars, he will not be satisfied; then an affliction which no Arab house will escape, and then a truce between you and Bani Al-Asfar (i.e. the Byzantines) who will betray you and attack you under eighty flags. Under each flag will be twelve thousand soldiers'."
(Sahih al-Bukhari 3176) 
It was narrated that Jubair bin Nufair (رضي الله عنه) said:
“Jubair said to me: ‘Let’s go to Dhu Mikhmar, who was a man from among the Companions of the Prophet (ﷺ).’ So I went with them and he asked him about the peace treaty (with the Romans). He said: ‘I heard the Prophet (ﷺ) say: “The Romans will enter into a peace treaty with you, then you and they will fight one another as enemies, and you will be victorious; you will collect the spoils of war and be safe. Then you will come back until you stop in a meadow with many hillocks. A man from among the people of the Cross will raise the Cross and will say: ‘The Cross has prevailed.’ Then a man among the Muslims will become angry and will go and break the Cross. Then the Romans will prove treacherous (breaking the treaty) (and will gather) for the fierce battle.”
(Sunan Ibn Majah 4089) 
Dhu Mikhbar (رضي الله عنه) said
"I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: you will make a secure peace with the Byzantines, then you and they will fight an enemy behind you, and you will be victorious, take booty, and be safe. You will then return and alight in a meadow with mounds and one of the Christians will raise the cross and say: The cross has conquered. One of the Muslims will become angry and smash it, and the Byzantines will act treacherously and prepare for the battle."
(Sunan Abi Dawud 4292) 
Yusair b. Jabir (رضي الله عنه) reported:
Once there blew a red storm in Kufah that there came a person who had nothing to say but (these words): `Abdullah b. Mas`ud, the Last Hour has come. He (`Abdullah b. Mas`ud) was sitting reclining against something, and he said: The Last Hour would not come until shares of inheritance are not distributed and there is no rejoicing over spoils of war. Then he said pointing towards Syria, with the gesture of his hand like this: The enemy shall muster strength against Muslims and the Muslims will muster strength against them (Syrians). I said: You mean Rome? And he said: Yes, and there would be a terrible fight and the Muslims would prepare a detachment (for fighting unto death) which would not return but victorious. They will fight until night will intervene them; both the sides will return without being victorious and both will be wiped out. The Muslims will again prepare a detachment for fighting unto death so that they may not return but victorious. When it would be the fourth day, a new detachment out of the remnant of the Muslims would be prepared and Allah will decree that the enemy should be routed. And they would fight such a fight the like of which would not be seen, so much so that even if a bird were to pass their flanks, it would fall down dead before reaching the end of them. (There would be such a large scale massacre) that when counting would be done, (only) one out of a hundred men related to one another would be found alive. So what can be the joy at the spoils of such war and what inheritance would be divided! They would be in this very state that they would hear of a calamity more horrible than this. And a cry would reach them: The Dajjal has taken your place among your offspring. They will, therefore, throw away what would be in their hands and go forward sending ten horsemen, as a scouting party. Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said: I know their names and the names of their forefathers and the color of their horses. They will be the best horsemen on the surface of the earth on that day or amongst the best horsemen on the surface of the earth on that day.
(Sahih Muslim 2899 a) 
It was narrated that Salamah bin Nufail Al-Kindi (رضي الله عنه) said:
"I was sitting with the Messenger of Allah when a man said: 'O Messenger of Allah! The people have lost interest in horses and put down their weapons, and they say there is no Jihad, and that war has ended.' The Messenger of Allah turned to face him and said: 'They are lying, now the fighting is to come. There will always be a group among my Ummah who will fight for the truth, for whom Allah will cause some people to deviate, and grant them provision from them, until the Hour begins and until the promise of Allah comes. Goodness is tied to the forelocks of horses until the Day of Resurrection. It has been revealed to me that I am going to die and will not stay long, and you will follow me group after group, striking one another's necks. And the place of safety for the believers is Ash-Sham.'"
(Sunan an-Nasa'i 3561) 
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:
"Iraq would withhold its dirhams and qafiz; Syria would withhold its mudd and dinar and Egypt would withhold its irdab and dinar and you would recoil to that position from where you started and you would recoil to that position from where you started and you would recoil to that position from where you started, the flesh and blood of Abu Huraira would bear testimony to it."
(Sahih Muslim 2896) 
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:
"The Last Hour would not come until the Muslims fight with the Turks-a people whose faces would be like hammered shields wearing clothes of hair and walking (with shoes) of hair."
(Sahih Muslim 2912 d) 
Narrated Abu Huraira, Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said,
"The Hour will not be established until you fight with the Turks; people with small eyes, red faces, and flat noses. Their faces will look like shields coated with leather. The Hour will not be established till you fight with people whose shoes are made of hair."
(Sahih al-Bukhari 2928) 
Buraidah said, In the tradition telling that people with small eyes, i.e. the Turks, will fight against you, the prophet (ﷺ) said:
"You will drive them off three times till you catch up with them in Arabia. On the first occasion when you drive them off those who fly will be safe, on the second occasion some will be safe and some will perish, but on the third occasion they will be extirpated, or he said words to that effect."
(Sunan Abi Dawud 4305) 
Discussion[edit | edit source]
Islamic scholars and Hadith commentators suggest that the word Romans refers to Christians. Byzantines will seize control of Muslim lands at the end of time, and they will prevent the Muslims from obtaining goods. The Hadiths further relate the subsequent Muslim victory, followed by the peaceful takeover of Constantinople with invocations of Takbir (الله أكبر) and Tasbih (سبحان الله و الحمد لله ولا اله الا الله), and finally the defeat of the Dajjal following the return and descent of Isa ibn Maryam. Other Hadiths relate the appearance of Imam Mahdi immediately before the second coming of Isa.  Imam Ibn al-Muneer said:
"Till this time the incident of gathering and attacking Rome in this huge number of soldiers has not happened yet. This matter has not taken place yet. In this Hadith there are glad tidings and warning at the same time to the Muslims. This Hadith also proves that the result will be in favor of the Muslims and the Muslim army will be much greater than it is now". 
In the past the Battle of Marj Dabiq (معركة مرج دابق) meaning 'Battle in the meadow of Dabiq' took place in 1516–17 between the Ottoman Empire and the Mamluk Sultanate, which ended in an Ottoman victory.  Throughout the 15th century, Mamluk Syria continued to decline, while a new power was growing to the north, that of the Ottoman Turkish sultanate in Asia Minor.Having occupied Constantinople and the Balkans, it began to look southward. In 1516 Sultan Selim I defeated the Mamluks in the Battle of Marj Dabiq and occupied the whole of Syria that year and Egypt the next.  Selim’s subjugation of the Dulkadir (Dhū al-Qadr) principality of Elbistan (now in Turkey) brought the Ottomans into conflict with the Mamlūk rulers of Syria and Egypt, who regarded Dulkadir as their protégé. Selim defeated the Mamlūk armies at the battles of Marj Dābiq and Raydānīyah (near Cairo), thus bringing Syria, Egypt, and Palestine under Ottoman rule. In Cairo the sharif of Mecca presented Selim with the keys to that holy city, a symbolic gesture acknowledging Selim as the leader of the Islamic world. 
In 2016, the 'Dabiq military offensive' was launched by the Turkish Armed Forces and factions from the Free Syrian Army and allied groups, resulting in the capture Dabiq town from Islamic State. Recently the Islamic State has launched an online magazine named Dabiq and a news outlet called Amaq News Agency for circulation of Jihadist media  .
References[edit | edit source]
- Hadith about the Romans attacking us under eighty flags
- The Book of Tribulations and Portents of the Last Hour
- Book of Jizyah and Mawaada'ah, Chapter: Caution against treachery
- Book of Tribulations, Chapter: The fierce battles
- Book of Battles (Kitab Al-Malahim), Chapter: What was mentioned about war with Rome
- The Book of Tribulations and Portents of the Last Hour, Chapter: Fighting The Byzantines, And A Great Deal Of Killing When Ad-Dajjal Emerges
- The Book of Horses, Races and Shooting, Chapter: "Goodness Is Tied To The Forelocks Of Horses Until The Day of Judgment
- The Book of Tribulations and Portents of the Last Hour, Chapter: The Hour Will Not Begin Until The Euphrates Uncovers A Mountain Of Gold
- Chapter: The Hour Will Not Begin Until A Man Passes By Another Man's Grave And Wishes That He Was In The Place Of The Deceased, Because Of Calamity
- Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihaad), Chapter: Fighting against the Turks
- Battles (Kitab Al-Malahim), Chapter: Regarding fighting the Turks
- A Hadith that speaks of a trade embargo on Iraq, Syria and Egypt
- Prophecy and the Fundamentalist Quest (pp. 41–2)
- Battle of Marj Dabiq
- Ottoman government, 16th–17th centuries
- Selim I OTTOMAN SULTAN
- 2016 Dabiq offensive
- Islamic army and 'infidel horde'
- Amaq News Agency