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Salawat

Salat al-Batra (Arabic: الصلاة البتراء) is a term found in some Ahadith which means to send incomplete Salawat/Durood (blessings/prayer) on the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) by ignoring his Ahl-al-Bayt (family) in the benediction/invocation. [1][2][3][4]

Quran[]

إن الله وملائكته يصلون على النبي يا أيها الذين آمنوا صلوا عليه وسلموا تسليما

Indeed, Allah confers blessing upon the Prophet, and His angels [ask Him to do so]. O you who have believed, ask [Allah to confer] blessing upon him and ask [Allah to grant him] peace. (Surat Al-'Aĥzāb 33:56) [5]

قل لا أسألكم عليه أجرا إلا المودة في القربى

Say, [O Muhammad], "I do not ask you for this message any payment [but] only good will through kinship." (Surat Ash-Shūraá 42:23) [6]

Hadith[]

Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said to his companions,

لا تصلوا علي الصلاة البتراء

“Do not send Salat al-Batra (shortened prayer) on me.”

قالوا : وما الصلاة البتراء يا رسول الله ؟

They said “What is Salat al-Batra, O Messenger of Allah?”

قال : تقولون اللهم صل على محمد ، وتمسكون ، بل قولوا : اللهم صل على محمد وعلى آل محمد

He replied: “It is to say: ‘O Allah send peace upon Muhammad’ only. Rather, say ‘O Allah send peace upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad’.”


(Sharaf Al-Mustafa by Abu Saad, Al Qawl al Badee' by Imam Sakhawi p121 and Sawahiq Al-Muhriqah by Ibn Hajar p430) [1][7][8][9][10]

In another report, Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said:

"And do not ask on me the benediction that is mutilated (Batra)." Thereat they said: "O Messenger of Allah! What is the mutilated blessing (Salat al-Batra)?" He replied: "(It is) saying: O Allah! shower blessing upon Muhammad, then keeping silent, while Allah is perfect (Kamil), accepting nothing but what is perfect".

This Hadith led Imam Ash-Shafi'i to say expressly that Allah will never accept the prayer of whoever does not ask benediction upon Ahl al-Bayt. [11][12]
In the book Sunan Al-Daraqutni, he is reported to have said, through his chain (Sanad) from Abu Mas'ud al-'Ansari, that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has said:

The prayer (Salat) of one who never asks blessings on me and on my Household, will never be accepted (by Allah). (Sunan Al-Daraqutni, p136)

Inal-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqa, Ibn Hajar is reported to have said, from Ad-Daylami, that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has said:

Every supplication (Du'a) is screened (Mahjub) from being heard till benediction is asked on Muhammad and his Household.

(Al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, Ibn Hajar, p88)

Also, At-Tabrani has reported in his book Al-'Awsat that 'Ali (عليه السلام) has said:

Every Du'a is Mahjub (kept from reaching Allah) till blessing is asked on Muhammad and Aal-e-Muhammad.

(Fayd al-Qadir, 5/19, Kanz al-Ummal, 1/173)

Abu Muhammad Ka'b bin 'Ujrah (رضي الله عنه) reported: The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) came to us and we asked him, "O Messenger of Allah, we already know how to greet you (i.e., say As-salamu 'Alaikum), but how should we supplicate for you?" He (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, "Say:

اللهم صلِ على محمد، وعلى آل محمد، كما صليت على آل إبراهيم، إنك حميد مجيد‏.‏ اللهم بارك على محمد وعلى آل محمد، كما باركت على آل إبراهيم، إنك حميد مجيد

"O Allah, exalt the mention of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as you exalted the family of Ibrahim. You are Praised and Glorious. O Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You blessed the family of Ibrahim. You are Praised and Glorious'." (Bukhari, Muslim & Riyad as-Salihin 1405) [13]

Aswad bin Yazid narrated that ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud (رضی الله عنهم) said: “When you send peace and blessings upon the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), then do it well, for you do not know, that may be shown to him.” They said to him: “Teach us.” He said: “Say:

اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْ صَلاَتَكَ وَرَحْمَتَكَ وَبَرَكَاتِكَ عَلَى سَيِّدِ الْمُرْسَلِينَ وَإِمَامِ الْمُتَّقِينَ وَخَاتَمِ النَّبِيِّينَ مُحَمَّدٍ عَبْدِكَ وَرَسُولِكَ إِمَامِ الْخَيْرِ وَقَائِدِ الْخَيْرِ وَرَسُولِ الرَّحْمَةِ اللَّهُمَّ ابْعَثْهُ مَقَامًا مَحْمُودًا يَغْبِطُهُ بِهِ الأَوَّلُونَ وَالآخِرُونَ اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ

O Allah, send Your grace, honor, mercy and blessings upon the leader of the Messengers, the imam of the pious and the seal of the Prophets, Muhammad, Your slave and Messenger, the Imam of the good (and the leader) of the good, and the Messenger of mercy. O Allah, raise him to a station of praise and glory that will be the envy of the first and the last. O Allah, send Your grace, honor and mercy upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your grace, honor and mercy upon Ibrahim, You are indeed Praiseworthy, Most Glorious. O Allah, send blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad as You sent blessings upon Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim, You are Praiseworthy, Most Glorious. (Sunan Ibn Majah 906) [14]

Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) reported the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) as sayings: if anyone would like to have the fullest measure granted to him when he invokes blessings on us, the members of the prophet’s family, he should say:

اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ النَّبِيِّ وَأَزْوَاجِهِ أُمَّهَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَذُرِّيَّتِهِ وَأَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ

O Allah, bless Muhammad, the unlettered Prophet, his wives who are the mother of the faithful, his off springs, and the people of his house as Thou didst bless the family of Abraham. Thou art indeed Praiseworthy and Glorious. (Sunan Abi Dawud 982) [15]

Narrated Abu Mas'ud Al-Ansari (رضي الله عنه): Bashir bin Sa'd (رضي الله عنه) said, "Allah has commanded us to invoke blessings on you (Quran 33:56), O Messenger of Allah! But how should we bless you?" Allah's Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) kept quiet (a while) and then said, "Say:

اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ , وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ , كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ , وَبَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ , وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ , كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي اَلْعَالَمِينَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ

'O Allah, bless Muhammad and the members of his family as You have blessed Ibrahim, and grant favors to Muhammad and the members of his family as You have granted favors to Ibrahim. In the worlds You are indeed Praiseworthy and Glorious.'

And the Taslim is as you know." (Muslim & Bulugh al-Maram 2/208).[16]

Abu Mas'ud Al-Badri (رضي الله عنه) reported: We were sitting in the company of Sa'd bin 'Ubadah (رضي الله عنه), when the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) came to us. Bashir bin Sa'd said: "O Messenger of Allah! Allah has commanded us to supplicate for you (Quran 33:56), but how should we do that?" The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) kept silent. We were much perturbed over his silence and we wished he did not asked him this question. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, "Say:

اللهم صلِ على محمد وعلى آل محمد كما صليت على آل إبراهيم وبارك على محمد وعلى آل محمد كما باركت على آل إبراهيم إنك حميد مجيد

'O Allah, exalt the mention of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as you exalted the family of Ibrahim. And bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You blessed the family of Ibrahim. You are the Praised, the Glorified,'

and the method of greeting (i.e., Salam) is as you know." (Muslim & Riyad as-Salihin 1406) [17]

Abu Humaid As-Sa'idi (رضي الله عنه) reported: The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: "O Messenger of Allah! How should we supplicate for you?" He (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) replied,

اللهم صلِ على محمد، وعلى أزواجه وذريته، كما صليت على آل إبراهيم، وبارك على محمد، وعلى أزواجه وذريته، كما باركت على إبراهيم، إنك حميد مجيد

"O Allah sent Your Salat (exalt the mention) on Muhammad and his wives and offspring as You exalted the mention of the family of Ibrahim, and bless Muhammad and the wives and the offspring of Muhammad as you blessed the family of Ibrahim. You are the Praised, the Glorious'." (Bukhari, Muslim & Riyad as-Salihin 1407) [18]

Zaid bin Arqam (رضي الله عنه) said: "One day Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) stood amongst us to deliver a Khutbah. So he praised Allah, extolled Him, exhorted and reminded (us) and said: 'Amma Ba'du (now then)!

ألا أيها الناس إنما أنا بشر يوشك أن يأتي رسول الله ربي فأجيب، وأنا تارك فيكم ثقلين ‏:‏‏ "‏ أولهما‏:‏ كتاب الله، فيه الهدى والنور، فخذو بكتاب الله، واستمسكوا به” فحث على كتاب الله، ورغب فيه، ثم قال‏:‏ “وأهل بيتي، أذكركم الله في أهل بيتي

O people, certainly I am a human being. I am about to receive a messenger of Allah my Lord (the angel of death) and I respond. And I am leaving among you two weighty things: There first of which is the Book of Allah. In is guidance and light, so hold fast to the Book of Allah and adhere to it.' So he exhorted (us) (to hold fast to it) and encouraged it then said, 'And the members of my household, I remind you of Allah with regards (of your duties) to the members of my family'." (Muslim & Riyad as-Salihin 711) [19]

Anas bin Malik (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said,

كل تقي من آل البيت

"Every pious believer is included in my family."

And in some reports,

انا جد كل تقي

"I am the predecessor of every pious believer"

And then he recited,

إن أولياؤه إلا المتقون

"Its [true] guardians are not but the righteous." (Surat Al-'Anfāl 8:34)

(At-Tabarani in Mu'jam al-Awsat 3/338, Al-Bayhaqi 2/83) [20]

References[]

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