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Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had four daughters [Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum & Fatima (رضي الله عنهما)] and three sons [Qasim, Abdullah & Ibrahim (رضي الله عنهم)]. Six of these children were from Khadijah (رضي الله عنها), and Ibrahim from Mariyah (رضي الله عنها). The three sons passed to eternity in their childhood.

Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)'s children

Hadhrat Zainab (رضي الله عنها)[]

She was the eldest daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and was born in the fifth year of his first marriage, when he was thirty. She embraced Islam and married to her cousin Abul Aas bin Rabi (رضي الله عنه). The story of her emigration to Madinah and her getting wounded by the Quraysh has been discussed. She suffered long from that wound, and at last died of in the beginning of 8 A. H, Her husband also embraced Islam later and joined her in Madinah. She had a son Ali ibn Abi al-As (رضي الله عنه), and a daughter Amamah bint Abi al-As (رضي الله عنها). Ali died during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . This same Ali was the person who sat with the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) on the camel's back at the time of his triumphal entry into Mecca.

We read frequently in Hadith about a little girl riding on the back of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) as he prostrated in Salaat; this was Amamah, Zainab’s daughter. Amamah lived long after the death of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). Ali ibn Abi Talib (رضي الله عنه) married Amamah on the death of Fatima (رضي الله عنها) -his first wife. It is said that Fatima at the time of her death had expressed a desire for this union. She had no child from Ali. After Hadhrat Ali's death she was again married to Hadhrat Mughirah bin Naful (رضي الله عنه), from whom she got a son named Yahya (رضي الله عنه). She died in 50 A. H.

Hadhrat Ruqayyah (رضي الله عنها)[]

She was born three years after the birth of Hadhrat Zainab (رضي الله عنها) when the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was 33. She was married to Utbah bin Abu Lahab -the Prophet's uncle, but had not yet started living with him. When Surah Lahab was revealed, Abu Lahab called his sons Utbah (husband of Ruqayyah) and Utaibah (husband of Umme Kulsum), and said to them:

“Unless you both divorce the daughters of Muhammad, I am not going to see your faces.”

They divorced their wives. Later, upon the fall of Mecca, Utbah embraced Islam. Hadhrat Ruqayyah (رضي الله عنها) after this divorce was married to Hadhrat Usman (رضي الله عنه). The couple emigrated to Abyssinia twice.

Since the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had announced to the Sahabah that he was expecting to receive Allah's command for emigration to Madinah any time, they started shifting to Madinah even before the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)'s Hijrat. Hadhrat Usman and Hadhrat Ruqayyah had also emigrated to Madinah before the Prophet arrived in the town. At the time of Badr, Hadhrat Ruqayyah was ill (she died subsequently of this illness). Usman was, therefore, asked by the Prophet to stay in Madinah and look after her. The news about the victory in Badr was received in Madinah when people were returning from Ruqayyah (رضي الله عنها)’s funeral. The Prophet was, therefore, not present at her burial. A son was born to Hadhrat Ruqayyah (رضي الله عنها) in Abyssinia. He was named Abdullah and survived his mother, but died in 4 A. H. when he was six years old.

Hadhrat Umme Kulsum (رضي الله عنها)[]

She is the third daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). She was married to Utaibah bin Abu Lahab but had not yet started living with him. Utaibah divorced her after the revelation of Surah Lahab, as has already been mentioned. After divorcing her, Utaibah came to the Prophet and used most insolent words. The Prophet cursed him by praying:

“O Allah! depute one of Thy dogs to punish him."

Abu Talib, who had also not embraced Islam, was alarmed at the curse and said to Utaibah:

“You have no way out now."

Once Utaibah was accompanying Abu Lahab in a caravan going to Syria. Abu Lahab, in spite of his disbelief, said to the people:

“I am afraid of Muhammad's curse. Everybody should be very careful of my son."

They happened to camp at a place which was inhabited by lions. The people piled up all their luggage and Utaibah was made to sleep on top of the pile, while the rest of the people slept around the pile. A lion came at night; it smelt all the people sleeping round the pile. Then it jumped over the people and reached Utaibah. He gave out a shriek, but meanwhile the lion had severed his head from his body. It is very necessary that we avoid offending the people dear to Allah. The Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has narrated that Allah said:

“I am at war with those who offend My friends.”

After the death of Hadhrat Ruqayyah (رضي الله عنها) (the first spouse of Hadhrat Usman) , Hadhrat Umme Kulsum (رضي الله عنها) was also married to Hadhrat 'Usman (رضي الله عنه) in Rabi-ul-Awwal, 3 A.H. The Prophet said:

“I have given Umme Kulsum in marriage to Usman by command."

She died issueless in Shaaban, 9 A. H. After her death, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is reported to have remarked:

“Even if I had one hundred daughters, I would have given all of them in marriage to 'Usman (one after the other), if each one had died."

Hadhrat Fatimah (رضي الله عنها)[]

Hadhrat Fatimah (رضي الله عنها) the fourth and the youngest daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) , and the "head of the ladies in Paradise" was born in the 1st year of Nubuwwat, when he was 41. It is said that the name Fatimah (lit: safe from fire) was revealed by Allah. She was married to Ali ibn Abi Talib (رضي الله عنه) in 2 A.H. and she began to live with him seven and a half months later. She was about 15 and Ali was 21 at the time of their union. Of all the daughters, she was the most loving to the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم); whenever he went out on a journey, she was the last one to part and when he returned home she was the first one to meet him. When Ali (رضي الله عنه) intended to marry Abu Jahal's daughter, she was very much grieved and expressed her grief to the Prophet. The Prophet said to Ali:

"Fatimah is a part of my body. Whoever grieves her, grieves me."

Ali (رضي الله عنه) gave up the idea of the second marriage during her life time. After her death, he married her niece Amamah (رضي الله عنها). It was about six months after the death of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) that Fatimah (رضي الله عنها) fell ill. One day she said to her maid: "I want to take a bath. Arrange some water for me." She took a bath and changed her clothes. She then desired her bed to be placed in the middle of the room. She laid herself down on the bedding, with her face towards Qiblah and her right hand under her right cheek, and said: "I am now going to die." The next moment she was no more. The Prophet's progeny continued and shall continue (In'sha Allah) through her children.

She had three sons and three daughters. Hadhrat Hasan (رضي الله عنه) and Hadhrat Hussain (رضي الله عنه) were born in the second and the third year after the marriage, respectively. Hadhrat Mohsin (رضي الله عنه), the third son, was born in 4 A.H., but died in childhood. Hasan (رضي الله عنه) had 15 sons and 8 daughters, while Husain (رضي الله عنه) was the father of 6 sons and 3 daughters.

Ruqayyah, Fatima's first daughter, died in infancy and has therefore, not been mentioned much in history.

Fatima's second daughter Umme Kulsum was first married to Hadhrat Umar (رضي الله عنه), begetting one son Zaid (رضي الله عنه) and one daughter Ruqayyah (رضي الله عنه). On Hadhrat Umar’s death, Hadhrat Umme Kulsum was married to Aun bin Ja’far (رضي الله عنه) [nephew of Ali (رضي الله عنه)], but had no child from him. After his death, his brother Muhammad bin Ja’far (رضي الله عنه) married her. A daughter was born to them, who died in childhood. Even Muhammad bin Ja'far died in her lifetime and she was again married to the third brother, Abdullah bin Ja’far (رضي الله عنه), from whom she had no child. She died as Abdullah bin Jafar's wife. Her son Zaid ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) also died the same day, and both were carried for burial at the same time.

Zainab (رضي الله عنه), Hadhrat Fatima’s third daughter, was married to Abdullah bin Ja’far (رضي الله عنه) and had two sons, Abdullah (رضي الله عنه) and Aun (رضي الله عنه) from him. It was after her death that Abdullah bin Ja’far married her sister Hadhrat Umme Kulsum (رضي الله عنه).

Hadhrat Ali (رضي الله عنه) had many other children from his wives after Fatimah (رضي الله عنه). It is stated that he had as many as 32 children.